This EUFAR project forms part of a multi-scale project on generation, transport and retention of water and suspended sediments in a large dryland catchment in NE Spain. Mediterranean dryland areas such as the selected study site are particularly sensitive to soil erosion, frequently resulting in reservoir siltation and thus adversely affecting water quantity and quality. At present, little is known on sediment storage and passage through the various catchment and channel units. Therefore, this project aims at providing a comprehensive set of data for hydrological modelling of water and suspended sediment transport in order to improve understanding of connectivity processes. Due to its high spectral and spatial resolution, airborne hyperspectral remote sensing is considered as a promising technique for assessing some of the required parameters for the spatial modelling approach. The concurrent acquisition of accurate LiDAR data allows retrieving detailed terrain and vegetation information. Focus of the present study is (1) to derive spatial information on vegetation, soil and terrain for hydrological model input by combined hyperspectral and LiDAR data, and (2) to conduct a spectral fingerprinting approach allowing to trace back sources and pathways of sediments. Airborne data acquisition will be accompanied by an extensive field campaign.