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Regional summaries from Arctic high-resolution sea ice-ocean forced modelling projections (2000-2050)

Update Frequency: Not Planned
Latest Data Update: 2023-01-13
Status: Completed
Online Status: ONLINE
Publication State: Published
Publication Date: 2023-08-18
Download Stats: last 12 months
Dataset Size: 8 Files | 18GB


Regional summaries from the high-resolution sea ice-ocean-biogeochemical modelling UKESM1.1-forced projections were generated to analyse oceanic impacts on retreat of the Arctic sea-ice pack in the high Arctic and from areas of the Transpolar drift, north of Greenland and in the Fram Strait in the future climate up to the 2050s and subsequent impacts on the ocean biogeochemistry. The model datasets span the Arctic Ocean proper and the sub-Arctic seas, covering the near-present and future climate from 2000-2050. The model used was a NEMOv4.2-SI3 common NOC-UK MetOffice configuration (G8.7) coupled to the MEDUSA ecosystem model. The forcing fields were from the UK ESM1.1 model SSP370 integrations.

The sea ice model output has been validated against the AMSR-E satellite sea-ice concentrations, as well as the CryoSat-2 and SMOS sea-ice thickness datasets. Monthly averages of the key sea-ice and ocean fields for the pan-Arctic and Greenland regions for the end of each of the decades 2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050 were created and combined into 4-D files for easy data handling.

The model datasets were produced by National Oceanography Centre (NOC) scientists Dr Yevgeny Aksenov and Dr Stefanie Rynders, using the global model runs carried out by Dr Andrew Coward. Dr Andrew Yool advised on the runs and assisted with data handling, and Dr Stephen Kelly also assisted with data extraction. The data were produced under Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) project PRE-MELT (grant references NE/T001399/1, NE/T000260/1, NE/T000546/1). Additional funding also came from NERC projects APEAR (grant reference NE/R012865/1), ARISE (grant reference NE/P006000/1), and Arctic PrIZE (grant reference NE/P006078/1), funded under the NERC/BMBF Changing Arctic Ocean Programme, from NERC NCLTS-M programme ESM (grant reference NE/N018036/1) and NCLTS-S programme CLASS (grant reference NE/R015953/1), from the European Commission grant CRESCENDO (grant no. 641816) and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 820989 (Project COMFORT—Our common future ocean in the Earth system - quantifying coupled cycles of carbon, oxygen, and nutrients for determining and achieving safe operating spaces with respect to tipping points).

Citable as:  Aksenov, Y.; Coward, A.; Yool, A.; Rynders, S.; Kelly, S. (2023): Regional summaries from Arctic high-resolution sea ice-ocean forced modelling projections (2000-2050). NERC British Oceanographic Data Centre, date of citation.
Abbreviation: Not defined
Keywords: Arctic Ocean, sea-ice, UK ESM1.1, Fram Strait, MEDUSA, SMOS, CryoSat-2, ARCRegiF


Previous Info:
No news update for this record
Previously used record identifiers:
No related previous identifiers.
Access rules:
Public data: access to these data is available to both registered and non-registered users.
Use of these data is covered by the following licence: When using these data you must cite them correctly using the citation given on the CEDA Data Catalogue record.
Data lineage:

Model projections were produced by scientists at the National Oceanography Centre (NOC), Southampton, UK. Outputs suitable for re-use were uploaded by the scientists to the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis (CEDA) ingestion area, where the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) carried out ingestion process, creating catalogue records and making the data available for public download.

Data Quality:
Data as supplied to BODC - no additional quality checks performed
File Format:
Data are CF-compliant NetCDF formatted data files

Related Documents

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Process overview

This dataset was generated by the computation detailed below.

ARC36 stand-alone SI3 Arctic configuration


This is a configuration of the NEMO community ocean model based on the ORCA2_SAS_ICE reference configuration. The NEMO code is available from This configuration has a resolution of 1/36 degree and is a cut-out of the global 1/36 configuration: The code base is a pre-4.2.0 NEMO version, the model source code can be found in the file src_tar. Model setup: Follow the instructions on to download and install the NEMO model version 4.2.0. Swap the src directory for the one in the tar file src_tar. Compile the ORCA2_SAS_ICE reference configuration. Put the rest of the files in this zenodo archive in the EXP00 directory, except the namelist_cfg_for_DOMAINcfg file which goes into tools/DOMAINcfg along with the grid files to be downloaded later. The files provided include example configuration namelist files namelist_cfg and namelist_ice_cfg. The atmospheric forcing used is the Drakkar forcing set (DFS) version 5.2, year 2008. The atmospheric forcing is interpolated on-the-fly, using the weights files. The weights were calculated using the nemo WEIGHTS tool. For the ocean (bottom) boundary the World Ocean Atlas 2018 multidecadal monthly averages are used. The data is already interpolated onto the ARC36 grid. Interpolation was done using the SOSIE tool. Files provided are monthly averages of sea surface salinity and temperature. Finally, the model grid needs to be created. Download the ORCA36 files from, see the ORCA36 demonstrator github page. The necessary files are the coordinates and bathymetry files. To cut out the Arctic domain use ncks -F -d y,7000,,1 Put in tools/DOMAINcfg and use the DOMAINcfg NEMO tool to create the file using the file namelist_cfg_for_DOMAINcfg as namelist_cfg. The resulting file is large (122GB) therefore executing in parallel mode is required. The individual processor files need to be merged into one, use the REBUILD_NEMO tool. Put the resulting file into EXP00 and run NEMO following the instructions. The ARC36 configuration was set up and run on ARCHER2 using 594 NEMO processors and 12 XIOS processors.

Input Description


Output Description


Software Reference


  • long_name: 1st principal stress component for EVP rhg
  • var_id: isig1
  • units:
  • long_name: 2nd principal stress component for EVP rhg
  • var_id: isig2
  • units:
  • units: N/m
  • long_name: Average normal stress in sea ice
  • standard_name: average_normal_stress
  • var_id: normstr
  • units: N/m
  • standard_name: compressive_strength_of_sea_ice
  • long_name: Compressive sea ice strength
  • var_id: sistre
  • units: s-1
  • standard_name: divergence_of_sea_ice_velocity
  • long_name: Divergence of the sea-ice velocity field
  • var_id: sidive
  • units: W/m2
  • long_name: Downward Heat Flux from E-P over ice
  • var_id: qemp_ice
  • long_name: Downward salt flux
  • units: 1e-3/m2/s
  • var_id: sfx
  • long_name: Fraction of time step with sea ice (per category)
  • var_id: simskcat
  • units:
  • long_name: Fraction of time steps with sea ice
  • standard_name: sea_ice_mask
  • var_id: simsk
  • units:
  • units: J/m2
  • long_name: Heat content vertically integrated
  • units: 1
  • long_name: Ice category
  • var_id: ncatice
  • standard_name: sea_ice_mask05
  • var_id: simsk05
  • units:
  • long_name: Ice mask (0 if ice conc. lower than 5%, 1 otherwise)
  • long_name: Ice mask (0 if ice conc. lower than 15%, 1 otherwise)
  • standard_name: sea_ice_mask15
  • var_id: simsk15
  • units:
  • units: degC
  • long_name: Ice temperature per category
  • var_id: sitemcat
  • units: degC
  • var_id: sitopcat
  • long_name: Ice/snow surface temperature per category
  • units: s-1
  • long_name: Maximum shear of sea-ice velocity field
  • standard_name: maximum_shear_of_sea_ice_velocity
  • var_id: sishea
  • units: N/m
  • long_name: Maximum shear stress in sea ice
  • standard_name: maximum_shear_stress
  • var_id: sheastr
  • var_id: albedo
  • long_name: Mean albedo over sea ice and ocean
  • units:
  • units: degC
  • long_name: Mean ice temperature
  • var_id: sitemp
  • units: degC
  • var_id: sntemp
  • long_name: Mean snow temperature
  • units: m
  • long_name: Mixed Layer Depth (dsigma = 0.01 wrt 10m)
  • standard_name: ocean_mixed_layer_thickness_defined_by_sigma_theta
  • var_id: mldr10_1
  • var_id: wfo
  • units: kg/m2/s
  • long_name: Net Upward Water Flux
  • standard_name: water_flux_out_of_sea_ice_and_sea_water
  • units: W/m2
  • long_name: Net conductive heat flux at the ice bottom (neg = ice cooling)
  • standard_name: conductive_heat_flux_at_sea_ice_bottom
  • var_id: hfxcndbot
  • units: W/m2
  • standard_name: conductive_heat_flux_at_sea_ice_surface
  • long_name: Net conductive heat flux at the ice surface (neg = ice cooling)
  • var_id: hfxcndtop
  • units: W/m2
  • long_name: Net sensible heat flux under sea ice (neg = ice cooling)
  • standard_name: ice_ocean_heat_flux
  • var_id: hfxsensib
  • var_id: saltc
  • long_name: Salt content vertically integrated
  • units: 1e-3*kg/m2
  • units: g/kg
  • long_name: Sea ice salinity
  • var_id: sisali
  • units: g/kg
  • long_name: Sea-Ice Bulk salinity per category
  • var_id: sisalcat
  • standard_name: sea_ice_area_fraction
  • var_id: siconc
  • long_name: Sea-ice area fraction
  • units:
  • long_name: Sea-ice concentration per category
  • var_id: siconcat
  • units:
  • units: m/s
  • standard_name: sea_ice_speed
  • long_name: Sea-ice speed
  • var_id: sivelo
  • units: m
  • standard_name: sea_ice_thickness
  • var_id: sithic
  • long_name: Sea-ice thickness
  • units: m
  • long_name: Sea-ice thickness per category
  • var_id: sithicat
  • units: m
  • standard_name: sea_ice_thickness
  • long_name: Sea-ice volume per area
  • var_id: sivolu
  • standard_name: snowfall_flux
  • units: kg/m2/s
  • long_name: Snow precipitation
  • var_id: snowpre
  • units: degC
  • long_name: Snow temperature per category
  • var_id: sntemcat
  • units: m
  • long_name: Snow thickness per category
  • var_id: snthicat
  • units: m
  • standard_name: cell_thickness
  • long_name: T-cell thickness
  • var_id: e3t
  • var_id: precip
  • standard_name: precipitation_flux
  • units: kg/m2/s
  • long_name: Total precipitation
  • units: m
  • var_id: mldkz5
  • standard_name: ocean_mixed_layer_thickness_defined_by_vertical_tracer_diffusivity
  • long_name: Turbocline depth (Kz = 5e-4)
  • units: m
  • long_name: Vertical T levels
  • var_id: deptht
  • units: N/m2
  • standard_name: surface_downward_x_stress
  • long_name: X-component of atmospheric stress on sea ice
  • var_id: utau_ai
  • units: N/m2
  • long_name: X-component of ocean stress on sea ice
  • standard_name: sea_ice_base_upward_x_stress
  • var_id: utau_oi
  • units: m/s
  • standard_name: sea_ice_x_velocity
  • long_name: X-component of sea ice velocity
  • var_id: sivelu
  • units: N/m2
  • standard_name: surface_downward_y_stress
  • long_name: Y-component of atmospheric stress on sea ice
  • var_id: vtau_ai
  • units: N/m2
  • long_name: Y-component of ocean stress on sea ice
  • standard_name: sea_ice_base_upward_y_stress
  • var_id: vtau_oi
  • units: m/s
  • standard_name: sea_ice_y_velocity
  • long_name: Y-component of sea ice velocity
  • var_id: sivelv
  • units: m
  • standard_name: ocean_mixed_layer_thickness_defined_by_sigma_theta
  • var_id: mldr10_1dcy
  • long_name: amplitude of mldr10_1 diurnal cycle
  • units: degC
  • standard_name: sea_surface_temperature
  • var_id: sstdcy
  • long_name: amplitude of sst diurnal cycle
  • long_name: convergence measure for EVP rheology (must be around 1)
  • var_id: isig3
  • units:
  • units: m
  • var_id: deptht_bounds
  • units: kg/m2/s
  • long_name: ice-ocean mass flux from ice melt/growth (neg = growth)
  • var_id: vfxice
  • units: kg/m2/s
  • long_name: ice-ocean mass flux from snw melt/growth (neg = growth)
  • var_id: vfxsnw
  • units: kg/m2/s
  • long_name: ice-ocean salt flux from ice growth/melt (neg = growth)
  • var_id: sfxice
  • long_name: melt pond concentration
  • standard_name: sea_ice_meltpond_concentration
  • var_id: siapnd
  • units:
  • units: m
  • long_name: melt pond volume
  • standard_name: sea_ice_meltpond_volume
  • var_id: sivpnd
  • units: W/m2
  • long_name: non-solar heat flux at ice surface (including E-P)
  • var_id: qns_ice
  • units: W/m2
  • var_id: qns_oce
  • long_name: non-solar heat flux at ocean surface (including E-P)
  • units: 1e-3
  • var_id: so
  • long_name: salinity
  • standard_name: sea_water_practical_salinity
  • units: degC
  • var_id: sbt
  • long_name: sea bottom temperature
  • units: m
  • var_id: zos
  • standard_name: sea_surface_height_above_geoid
  • long_name: sea surface height
  • units: m
  • standard_name: sea_surface_height_above_geoid
  • var_id: zosstd
  • long_name: sea surface height above geoid standard deviation
  • units: 1e-3
  • long_name: sea surface salinity
  • standard_name: sea_surface_salinity
  • var_id: sos
  • units: degC
  • standard_name: sea_surface_temperature
  • long_name: sea surface temperature
  • var_id: tos
  • units: degC
  • standard_name: sea_surface_temperature
  • var_id: tosstd
  • long_name: sea surface temperature standard deviation
  • units: m
  • long_name: snow volume
  • var_id: snvolu
  • standard_name: surface_downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air
  • units: W/m2
  • long_name: solar heat flux at ice surface
  • var_id: qsr_ice
  • units: W/m2
  • standard_name: net_downward_shortwave_flux_at_sea_water_surface
  • long_name: solar heat flux at ocean surface
  • var_id: qsr_oce
  • units: W/m2
  • long_name: solar heat flux transmitted through the ice (to the ocean)
  • var_id: qtr_ice_bot
  • units: W/m2
  • long_name: solar heat flux transmitted through the ice surface
  • var_id: qtr_ice_top
  • units: psu
  • var_id: sss_m
  • units: degC
  • var_id: sst_m
  • units: degC
  • standard_name: sea_water_potential_temperature
  • long_name: temperature
  • var_id: thetao
  • units: degC
  • long_name: temperature at the ice bottom
  • var_id: sitbot
  • units: degC
  • long_name: temperature at the ice surface
  • var_id: sittop
  • units: degC
  • long_name: temperature at the snow-ice interface
  • var_id: sitsni
  • var_id: time_centered_bounds
  • var_id: time_counter_bounds
  • units: W/m2
  • standard_name: surface_downward_heat_flux_in_sea_water
  • long_name: total flux at ocean surface
  • var_id: qt_oce
  • units: W/m2
  • standard_name: surface_downward_heat_flux_in_air
  • long_name: total heat flux at ice surface
  • var_id: qt_ice
  • units: W/m2
  • long_name: total heat flux at the oce-ice surface: interface atm-(ice+oce)
  • var_id: qt_atm_oi
  • units: W/m2
  • var_id: qt_oce_ai
  • long_name: total heat flux at the ocean surface: interface oce-(ice+atm)
  • standard_name: wind_speed
  • units: m/s
  • long_name: wind speed module
  • var_id: windsp
  • units: N/m2
  • var_id: taum
  • standard_name: magnitude_of_surface_downward_stress
  • long_name: wind stress module

Co-ordinate Variables

  • units: degrees_north
  • standard_name: latitude
  • long_name: Latitude
  • var_id: nav_lat
  • units: degrees_east
  • standard_name: longitude
  • long_name: Longitude
  • var_id: nav_lon
  • standard_name: time
  • units: seconds
  • long_name: Time axis
  • var_id: time_counter
Temporal Range
Start time:
End time:
Geographic Extent