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HadUK-Grid Climate Observations by Administrative Regions over the UK, v1.3.0.ceda (1836-2023)

Update Frequency: Not Planned
Status: Planned
Online Status: ONLINE
Publication State: Citable
Publication Date: 2024-07-18
DOI Publication Date: 2024-07-18
Download Stats: last 12 months
Dataset Size: 162 Files | 18MB


HadUK-Grid is a collection of gridded climate variables derived from the network of UK land surface observations. The data have been interpolated from meteorological station data onto a uniform grid to provide complete and consistent coverage across the UK. These data at 1 km resolution have been averaged across a set of discrete geographies defining UK administrative regions consistent with data from UKCP18 climate projections. The dataset spans the period from 1836 to 2023 but the start time is dependent on climate variable and temporal resolution.

The gridded data are produced for daily, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales, as well as long term averages for a set of climatological reference periods. Variables include air temperature (maximum, minimum and mean), precipitation, sunshine, mean sea level pressure, wind speed, relative humidity, vapour pressure, days of snow lying, and days of ground frost.

This data set supersedes the previous versions of this dataset which also superseded UKCP09 gridded observations. Subsequent versions may be released in due course and will follow the version numbering as outlined by Hollis et al. (2018, see linked documentation).

The changes for v1.3.0.ceda HadUK-Grid datasets are as follows:

* Added data for calendar year 2023

* Added newly digitised data for daily rainfall (62 Scottish stations for 1945-1960)

* Daily rainfall data for Bolton, 1916-1919 have been corrected (previous values were corrupted and needed redigitising)

* Daily rainfall data for Buxton, 1960 have been corrected (conversion from inches to mm had been applied incorrectly)

* Rainfall data from EA and SEPA APIs are included for the last three months of the dataset (Oct-Dec 2023) (for all earlier months the rainfall data from partner agencies is obtained from the Met Office's MIDAS database)

* The number of stations used for groundfrost, sunshine and windspeed have reduced at different points in the historical series when comparing v1.3.0.ceda to the previous version v1.2.0.ceda. These reductions in station numbers have been caused by changes made in the data processing steps upstream of the gridding process.

* For groundfrost this reduction has been caused by an automated quality control process flagging the historical data which have been removed as suspect (mostly affecting data from 1961 to 1970).

* For sunshine the small reduction in the 1960s has been caused by the removal of digitized monthly sunshine data through this period where we wish to reverify the data source.

* For windspeed the reduction from 1969 to 2010 has been caused by changes to rules applied relating to data completeness when compiling daily mean windspeeds, which in turn have followed through to monthly statistics.

* We plan to carry out a review of the data which have been excluded from this version. Some of it may be reintroduced in a future release.

* Net changes to the input station data:

- Total of 126970983 observations
- 125384735 (98.75%) unchanged
- 28487 (0.02%) modified for this version
- 1557761 (1.23%) added in this version
- 188522 (0.15%) deleted from this version

The primary purpose of these data are to facilitate monitoring of UK climate and research into climate change, impacts and adaptation. The datasets have been created by the Met Office with financial support from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in order to support the Public Weather Service Customer Group (PWSCG), the Hadley Centre Climate Programme, and the UK Climate Projections (UKCP18) project. The output from a number of data recovery activities relating to 19th and early 20th Century data have been used in the creation of this dataset, these activities were supported by: the Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme; the Natural Environment Research Council project "Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK"; the UK Research & Innovation (UKRI) Strategic Priorities Fund UK Climate Resilience programme; The UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Public Engagement programme; the National Centre for Atmospheric Science; National Centre for Atmospheric Science and the NERC GloSAT project; and the contribution of many thousands of public volunteers. The dataset is provided under Open Government Licence.

Citable as:  Met Office; Hollis, D.; Carlisle, E.; Kendon, M.; Packman, S.; Doherty, A. (2024): HadUK-Grid Climate Observations by Administrative Regions over the UK, v1.3.0.ceda (1836-2023). NERC EDS Centre for Environmental Data Analysis, 18 July 2024. doi:10.5285/8a51496be92b4e9488954c7c0199f3f9.
Abbreviation: Not defined
Keywords: Met Office, UKCP18, BEIS, Defra, land surface, climate observations, hadobs


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Access rules:
Access to these data is available to any registered CEDA user. Please Login or Register for an account to gain access.
Use of these data is covered by the following licence: When using these data you must cite them correctly using the citation given on the CEDA Data Catalogue record.
Data lineage:

Data provided by the UK Met Office for archiving in the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis (CEDA) archives.

Data Quality:
Data quality control details for the HadUK-Grid version 1.0 datasets is available in section 2.2. of Hollis et al. (2019). See linked documentation for further details.
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Process overview

This dataset was generated by the computation detailed below.

HadUK-Grid gridded climate observations methodology


The gridded data sets are based on the archive of UK weather observations held at the Met Office. The density of the station network used varies through time, and for different climate variables - for example, for the temperature variables the number of stations rises from about 270 in 1910s to 600 in the mid-1990s, before falling to 450 in 2006. Regression and interpolation are used to generate values on a regular grid from the irregular station network, taking into account factors such as latitude and longitude, altitude and terrain shape, coastal influence, and urban land use. This alleviates the impact of station openings and closures on homogeneity, but the impacts of a changing station network cannot be removed entirely, especially in areas of complex topography or sparse station coverage.

The methods used to generate the grids are described in more detail in a paper published by Hollis et al. (2019) (see linked documentation on this record).

To help users combine the observational data sets with the UKCP18 climate projections, the 1km x 1km grid is averaged to grids at resolutions to match those of the climate projections. Each 5 x 5 km, 12 x 12 km, 25 x 25 km or 60 x 60 km grid box value is an average of the all the 1 × 1 km grid cell values that fall within it. A set of regional values for UK administrative regions, river basins and countries are calculated as the average of all 1 × 1 km grid cell values that fall within the defined geography.

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