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Auchencorth Moss Atmospheric Observatory (AU): Annual half-hourly meteorology since 1995, Near Edinburgh, UK

Update Frequency: Annually
Latest Data Update: 2023-01-27
Status: Ongoing
Online Status: ONLINE
Publication State: Published
Publication Date: 2017-09-28
Download Stats: last 12 months
Dataset Size: 28 Files | 75MB


The site was setup in 1995 to measure meteorology, trace gases, aerosols and their fluxes. It is (55ᵒ47’36” N, 3°14’41” W) an ombrotrophic peatland with an extensive fetch at an elevation of 270 m, lying 18 km SSW of Edinburgh, and can be categorised as a transitional lowland raised bog. The site is grazed with < 1 sheep ha^-1.

During 2000s the site activity has increased and was established in 2006 as EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Program, Level 2/3) supersite for the UK. Long term monitoring is led by NERC CEH with contributions from other organisations/research institutes including Ricardo AEA, BureauVeritas, NPL, the University of Birmingham and University of Edinburgh. In April 2014 the site was awarded WMO GAW regional station (World Meteorological Orgamisation Global Atmospheric Watch). In 2017 the site joined the ICOS network (Integrated Carbon Observation System).

The meteorological measurements were initially made to assist with interpretation of the fluxes and as such weren't installed with the intention of providing WMO standard measurements but since 2014 we have been moving towards these standards as well as enhancing instrumentation.

The dataset includes the following parameters at half hourly intervals, although not every variable is available from 1995 to 2016:
-T_upper_Avg - initially used to estimate senisble heat fluxes, fine wire type-E thermocouple.
-T_lower_Avg - initially used to estimate senisble heat fluxes, fine wire type-E thermocouple.
-T_RHT_Avg - Temperature measured by a Vailsala relative humidity and temperature probe.
-RH_RHT_Avg - Relative humidity measured by a Vailsala relative humidity and temperature probe.
-P_Avg - atmospheric pressure at the sites elevation.
-Tot_Solar_Avg - Total solar radiation measured by a Skye SKS1110.
-PAR_Avg - Photosynthetically Averaged Radiation measured by a Skye SKP215.
-NetRad_Avg - Net radiation, Kipp & Zonen NrLite.
-Rainfall - tipping bucket rainfall.
-SoilTavg - Average soil temperature from four type-E thermocouple probes.
-Soil Heat Flux - calculated from two measurements of soil heat flux with Hukseflux HFP01 plates, corrected to surface flux using the standard formula.
-Cs = Bd(Cd+fSWC.Cw)
-SC = DTs.Cs.d/Dtime
-SHF = Plate Average + SC
-DTs = change in average soil temperature from start to end of measurement period (first and last two minutes); d = plate depth 0.2 m; Bd = soil bulk density, 100 kg m-3; cd = Specific Heat Dry Soil, 840J kg-1 K-1; fSWC = fractional soil water content, measured or 0.9; cw = Specific Capacilty Heat of Water, 4190 J kg-1 K-1; Dtime = measurement period, 1800 s
-Soil Moisture - soil water content measured with TDR probes, campbell CS616
-WindSpd (measured) - measured by a Gill R3 then Windmaster sonic anemometer at 3.6 m
-WindSpd 10 m - for most of the time period this is estimated from the turbulence measurements and 3.6 m windspeed but from 22/06/2016 a Gill Windsonic 2D anemeometer measures at 10 m
-Wind Dir - measured by the sonic anemometer at 3.6 m
-snow_depth_Avg - Campbell Scientific SR50A-L Sonic Ranging Sensor
-Present Weather - Vaisala FD12P Present Weather Sensor
-1 hr Past Weather - Vaisala FD12P Present Weather Sensor
-Visibility - Vaisala FD12P Present Weather Sensor
-Evaporation - to be estimated from the water-vapout flux measurements

For modelling purposes gapfilled (variables with _gf suffixes) times series will be included, they are created by linearly initially interpolating across upto an hours missing data, filling with colocated measurements (adjusted by linear interpolation with the core data), filling with measurements from nearby sites (adjusted by linear interpolation with the core data).
Windspd 10m_gf
Wind Dir_gf

Citable as:  Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; Coyle, M.; Roberts, E.; Jones, M.; Leeson, S.; Mullinger, N.; Simmons, I.; Van Dijk, N.; Kentisbeer, J.; Leith, I.; Storton-West, R.; Flechard, C.; Twigg, M.; Helfter, C.; Fowler, D.; Nemitz, E. (2017): Auchencorth Moss Atmospheric Observatory (AU): Annual half-hourly meteorology since 1995, Near Edinburgh, UK. Centre for Environmental Data Analysis, date of citation.
Abbreviation: Not defined
Keywords: Auchencorth Moss, Meteorology, Temperature, Rainfall, Wind Speed


Previous Info:
No news update for this record
Previously used record identifiers:
No related previous identifiers.
Access rules:
Public data: access to these data is available to both registered and non-registered users.
Use of these data is covered by the following licence: When using these data you must cite them correctly using the citation given on the CEDA Data Catalogue record.
Data lineage:

The site was established in 1995 and all sensors where logged using Campbell Scientific data loggers, instruments were checked regularly but not calibrated or assessed against others until 2005. Since the site has become affiliated with WMO and ICOS procedures and instruments are being modernised. This data set has been reviewed against data from colocated equivalent instruments onsite or nearby (withing ~7 km). The data was first received into the CEDA archive in 2017 with an update added each year.

File Format:
Data are BADC CSV formatted

Process overview

This dataset was generated by instruments deployed on platforms as listed below.
Output Description


  • long_name: 1 hour Past Weather
  • long_name: 1 hour Past Weather flag
  • long_name: Air Temperature average
  • long_name: Air Temperature average flag
  • long_name: Evaporation
  • long_name: Gapfilled Pressure
  • long_name: Gapfilled Pressure flag
  • long_name: Gapfilled Rainfall
  • long_name: Gapfilled Relative humidity
  • long_name: Gapfilled Relative humidity flag
  • long_name: Gapfilled Temperature
  • long_name: Gapfilled Temperature flag
  • long_name: Gapfilled Wind speed 10 m
  • long_name: Gapfilled rainfall flag
  • long_name: Gapfilled solar radiation
  • long_name: Gapfilled solar radiation flag
  • long_name: Gapfilled wind direction
  • long_name: Gapfilled wind direction flag
  • long_name: Gapfilled wind speed 10 m flag
  • long_name: Net radiation corrected for windspeed average effects
  • long_name: Net radiation flag
  • long_name: Photosynthetically Active Radiation average
  • long_name: Photosynthetically Active Radiation flag
  • long_name: Present Weather
  • long_name: Present weather flag
  • long_name: Pressure average
  • long_name: Pressure flag
  • long_name: Rainfall
  • long_name: Rainfall flag
  • long_name: Relative Humidity average
  • long_name: Relative Humidity average flag
  • long_name: Snow depth average
  • long_name: Snow depth flag
  • long_name: Soil Heat Flux
  • long_name: Soil Moisture
  • long_name: Soil Moisture flag
  • long_name: Soil heat flux flag
  • long_name: Soil temperature average
  • long_name: Soil temperature flag
  • long_name: Temperature Upper Average
  • long_name: Temperature Upper Average flag
  • long_name: Temperature lower average
  • long_name: Temperature lower average flag
  • long_name: Time Stamp
  • long_name: Total incident solar radiation average
  • long_name: Total solar radiation flag
  • long_name: Visibility
  • long_name: Visibility flag
  • long_name: Wind Direction
  • long_name: Wind Speed 10 m
  • long_name: Wind Speed flag
  • long_name: Wind Speed measured
  • long_name: Wind Speed measured flag
  • long_name: Wind direction flag

Co-ordinate Variables