VolcanEESM: Global volcanic sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions database from 1850 to present - Version 1.0
This dataset is associated with the VolcanEESM project led by the project team at the University of Leeds. The project was funded by NCAR/UCAR Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Visiting Scientist Program, NCAS, University of Leeds.
The global volcanic sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions database is a combination of available information from the wider literature with as many observations of the amount and location of SO2 emitted by each volcanic eruption as possible. The database includes no information about the size, mass, distribution or optical depth of resulting aerosol. As such the database is model agnostic and it is up to each modeling group to make decisions about how to implement the emission file in their prognostic stratospheric aerosol scheme.
The dataset is divided into two parts based on the availability of satellite data. For the pre-satellite era, the necessary information about the emissions was gathered from the latest ice core records of sulphate deposition in combination historical accounts available in the wider literature (see references included in the database for specific citation for each record). In the satellite era, volcanic emissions were primarily derived from remotely sensed observations.
For the period 1850 CE to 1979 the dataset combined the most recent volcanic sulfate deposition datasets from ice cores with volcanological and, where applicable, petrological estimates of the SO2 mass emitted as well as historical records of large-magnitude volcanic eruptions. In detail, for the majority of eruptions between 1850 CE to 1979 , there are few direct measurement of SO2 emissions or quantitative observations of the plume height and very few measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD).
Parameters in the database include:
Day_of_Emission: The 24 hour period in which the emission is thought to have occurred. (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.)
Eruption: Field that contains the Volcano_Number (Which uniquely identifies each volcano in the Global Volcanism Program Database), Volcano_Name (official name from the Global Volcanism Program Database), Notes_and_References (list of notes about the observed parameters and references used to derive each entry). ( Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.)
Latitude: Latitude of each emission from -90 to +90 (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.)
Longitude: Longitude of each emission degrees East (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.)
VEI: Volcanic Explosively Index of each emission based on Global Volcanism Program Database (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.)
Total_Emission_of_SO2_Tg: Total emission of SO2 in teragram for the specific database entry (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.)
Maximum_Injection_Height_km: Maximum height of each emission in kilometers above sea level. (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.)
Minimum_Injection_Height_km: Minimum height of each emission in kilometers above sea level. (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.)
Month_of_Emission: The month in which the emission is thought to have occurred. (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.)
Year_of_Emission: The Year in which the emission is thought to have occurred. (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.)
No news update for this record
|Previously used record identifiers:||
No related previous identifiers.
Access to these data is available to any registered CEDA user. Please Login or Register for an account to gain access.
Use of these data is covered by the following licence: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3/. When using these data you must cite them correctly using the citation given on the CEDA Data Catalogue record.
Data provided by the project PI for archival at CEDA.
The following citations have been automatically harvested from external sources associated with this resource where DOI tracking is possible. As such some citations may be missing from this list whilst others may not be accurate. Please contact the helpdesk to raise any issues to help refine these citation trackings.
|Chim, M. M., Aubry, T. J., Abraham, N. L., Marshall, L., Mulcahy, J., Walton, J., & Schmidt, A. (2023). Climate Projections Very Likely Underestimate Future Volcanic Forcing and Its Climatic Effects. Geophysical Research Letters, 50(12). Portico. https://doi.org/10.1029/2023gl103743|
|Fritz, T. M., Eastham, S. D., Emmons, L. K., Lin, H., Lundgren, E. W., Goldhaber, S., Barrett, S. R. H., & Jacob, D. J. (2022). Implementation and evaluation of the GEOS-Chem chemistry module version 13.1.2 within the Community Earth System Model v2.1. https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2022-226|
|Fritz, T. M., Eastham, S. D., Emmons, L. K., Lin, H., Lundgren, E. W., Goldhaber, S., Barrett, S. R. H., & Jacob, D. J. (2022). Implementation and evaluation of the GEOS-Chem chemistry module version 13.1.2 within the Community Earth System Model v2.1. Geoscientific Model Development, 15(23), 8669â8704. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-15-8669-2022|
|Froidevaux, L., Kinnison, D. E., Santee, M. L., MillÃ¡n, L. F., Livesey, N. J., Read, W. G., Bardeen, C. G., Orlando, J. J., & Fuller, R. A. (2022). Upper stratospheric ClO and HOCl trends (2005â2020): Aura Microwave Limb Sounder and model results. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22(7), 4779â4799. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-4779-2022|
|Fung, K. M., Heald, C. L., Kroll, J. H., Wang, S., Jo, D. S., Gettelman, A., Lu, Z., Liu, X., Zaveri, R. A., Apel, E. C., Blake, D. R., Jimenez, J.-L., Campuzano-Jost, P., Veres, P. R., Bates, T. S., Shilling, J. E., & Zawadowicz, M. (2022). Exploring dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation and implications for global aerosol radiative forcing. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22(2), 1549â1573. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-1549-2022|
|Gettelman, A., Mills, M. J., Kinnison, D. E., Garcia, R. R., Smith, A. K., Marsh, D. R., Tilmes, S., Vitt, F., Bardeen, C. G., McInerny, J., Liu, H. âL., Solomon, S. C., Polvani, L. M., Emmons, L. K., Lamarque, J. âF., Richter, J. H., Glanville, A. S., Bacmeister, J. T., Phillips, A. S., â¦ Randel, W. J. (2019). The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model Version 6 (WACCM6). Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(23), 12380â12403. Portico. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019jd030943|
|Hegerl, G. C., BrÃ¶nnimann, S., Schurer, A., & Cowan, T. (2018). The early 20th century warming: Anomalies, causes, and consequences. WIREs Climate Change, 9(4). Portico. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.522|
|Hindley, N. P., Mitchell, N. J., Cobbett, N., Smith, A. K., Fritts, D. C., Janches, D., Wright, C. J., & Moffat-Griffin, T. (2022). Radar observations of winds, waves and tides in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over South Georgia island (54Â°âS, 36Â°âW) and comparison with WACCM simulations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22(14), 9435â9459. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-9435-2022|
|Matthias, V., Arndt, J. A., Aulinger, A., Bieser, J., Denier van der Gon, H., Kranenburg, R., Kuenen, J., Neumann, D., Pouliot, G., & Quante, M. (2018). Modeling emissions for three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry transport models. Journal of the Air Waste Management Association, 68(8), 763â800. https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2018.1424057|
|Neely, R. R., Conley, A., Vitt, F., & Lamarque, J. F. (2015). A Consistent Prescription of Stratospheric Aerosol for Both Radiation and Chemistry in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). https://doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-8-10711-2015|
|Niemeier, U., Timmreck, C., & KrÃ¼ger, K. (2019). Revisiting the Agung 1963 volcanic forcing â impact of one or two eruptions. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-415|
|not a doi https://doi.org/20.500.11850/277280|
|Quaglia, I., Timmreck, C., Niemeier, U., Visioni, D., Pitari, G., Brodowsky, C., BrÃ¼hl, C., Dhomse, S. S., Franke, H., Laakso, A., Mann, G. W., Rozanov, E., & Sukhodolov, T. (2023). Interactive stratospheric aerosol modelsâ response to different amounts and altitudes of SO2 injection during the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 23(2), 921â948. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-23-921-2023|
|Schulz, M., & McConnell, J. R. (2022). Historical changes in aerosol. Aerosols and Climate, 249â297. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-819766-0.00010-9|
|Stone, K. A., Solomon, S., Kinnison, D. E., Pitts, M. C., Poole, L. R., Mills, M. J., Schmidt, A., Neely, R. R., Ivy, D., Schwartz, M. J., Vernier, J., Johnson, B. J., Tully, M. B., Klekociuk, A. R., KÃ¶nigâLanglo, G., & Hagiya, S. (2017). Observing the Impact of Calbuco Volcanic Aerosols on South Polar Ozone Depletion in 2015. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(21). Portico. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017jd026987|
|Tilmesâââââââ, S., Visioni, D., Jones, A., Haywood, J., SÃ©fÃ©rian, R., Nabat, P., Boucher, O., Bednarz, E. M., & Niemeier, U. (2022). Stratospheric ozone response to sulfate aerosol and solar dimming climate interventions based on the G6 Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) simulations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22(7), 4557â4579. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-4557-2022|
|Toohey, M., & Sigl, M. (2017). Volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and aerosol optical depth from 500â¯BCE to 1900â¯CE. Earth System Science Data, 9(2), 809â831. https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-9-809-2017|
|Wilka, C., Solomon, S., Kinnison, D., & Tarasick, D. (2021). An Arctic ozone hole in 2020 if not for the Montreal Protocol. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(20), 15771â15781. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-15771-2021|
|Zambri, B., Solomon, S., Thompson, D. W. J., & Fu, Q. (2021). Emergence of Southern Hemisphere stratospheric circulation changes in response to ozone recovery. Nature Geoscience, 14(9), 638â644. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-021-00803-3|
|Zhu, Y., Toon, O. B., Jensen, E. J., Bardeen, C. G., Mills, M. J., Tolbert, M. A., Yu, P., & Woods, S. (2020). Persisting volcanic ash particles impact stratospheric SO2 lifetime and aerosol optical properties. Nature Communications, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18352-5|
- var_id: Day_of_Emission
- var_id: Eruption
- var_id: Latitude
- var_id: Longitude
- var_id: Maximum_Injection_Height
- var_id: Minimum_Injection_Height
- var_id: Month_of_Emission
- long_name: Sulphur Dioxide
- names: Sulphur Dioxide
- var_id: Total_Emission
- var_id: VEI
- var_id: Year_of_Emission