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HadISD: Global sub-daily, surface meteorological station data, 1931-2017, v2.0.2.2017f

Update Frequency: Not Planned
Latest Data Update: 2018-06-05
Status: Superseded
Online Status: ONLINE
Publication State: Citable
Publication Date: 2018-03-28
DOI Publication Date: 2018-03-28
Download Stats: last 12 months
Dataset Size: 8.12K Files | 38GB

This dataset has been superseded. See Latest Version here

This is version of Met Office Hadley Centre's Integrated Surface Database, HadISD. These data are global sub-daily surface meteorological data that extends HadISD v2.0.1.2016p to include 2017 and so spans 1931-2017, it replaces the preliminary version (v2.0.2.2017p) as the ISD data for 2017 are now finalised.

The quality controlled variables in this dataset are: temperature, dewpoint temperature, sea-level pressure, wind speed and direction, cloud data (total, low, mid and high level). Past significant weather and precipitation data are also included, but have not been quality controlled, so their quality and completeness cannot be guaranteed. Quality control flags and data values which have been removed during the quality control process are provided in the qc_flags and flagged_values fields, and ancillary data files show the station listing with a station listing with IDs, names and location information.

The data are provided as one NetCDF file per station. Files in the station_data folder station data files have the format "station_code" The station codes can be found under the docs tab or on the archive beside the station_data folder. The station codes file has five columns as follows: 1) station code, 2) station name 3) station latitude 4) station longitude 5) station height.

To keep informed about updates, news and announcements follow the HadOBS team on twitter @metofficeHadOBS.

For more detailed information e.g bug fixes, routine updates and other exploratory analysis, see the HadISD blog:

For a more detailed description of precipitation see:

When using the dataset in a paper you must cite the following papers (see Docs for link to the publications) and this dataset (using the "citable as" reference) :

Dunn, R. J. H., Willett, K. M., Parker, D. E., and Mitchell, L.: Expanding HadISD: quality-controlled, sub-daily station data from 1931, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 473-491, doi:10.5194/gi-5-473-2016, 2016.

Dunn, R. J. H., et al. (2012), HadISD: A Quality Controlled global synoptic report database for selected variables at long-term stations from 1973-2011, Clim. Past, 8, 1649-1679, 2012, doi:10.5194/cp-8-1649-2012

Smith, A., N. Lott, and R. Vose, 2011: The Integrated Surface Database: Recent Developments and Partnerships. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, 704–708, doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3015.1

For a homogeneity assessment of HadISD please see this following reference

Dunn, R. J. H., K. M. Willett, C. P. Morice, and D. E. Parker. "Pairwise homogeneity assessment of HadISD." Climate of the Past 10, no. 4 (2014): 1501-1522. doi:10.5194/cp-10-1501-2014, 2014.

Citable as:  Met Office Hadley Centre; National Centers for Environmental Information - NOAA (2018): HadISD: Global sub-daily, surface meteorological station data, 1931-2017, v2.0.2.2017f. Centre for Environmental Data Analysis, 28 March 2018. doi:10.5285/acee665e3e664a73b8ad247e99b343d5.
Abbreviation: Not defined
Keywords: temperature, dewpoint, pressure, wind, speed, direction, cloud, precipitation


Previous Info:
No news update for this record
Previously used record identifiers:
No related previous identifiers.
Access rules:
Public data: access to these data is available to both registered and non-registered users.
Use of these data is covered by the following licence: When using these data you must cite them correctly using the citation given on the CEDA Data Catalogue record.
Data lineage:

HadISD the global sub-daily station dataset was produced by the Met Office Hadley Centre. It was derived from the Integrated Surface Dataset (ISD) from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). HadISD has been passed to the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis (CEDA) for archiving and distribution.

Data Quality:
CF-Compliant NetCDF, see documentation for quality control processes used to produce these data. These data are quality controlled by the data provider, the Met Office Hadley Centre (MOHC) and not the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis (CEDA)
File Format:
The data are NetCDF formatted.

Process overview

This dataset was generated by the computation detailed below.

HadISD station data processing performed at the Met Office Hadley Centre


The HadISD station data were produced by the Met Office Hadley Centre. Individual station data within the ISD were selected selected on the basis of their length of record and reporting frequency. A merging algorithm using their location, elevation and station name identified candidates suitable to combine together. All stations were passed through a suite of automated quality control tests designed to remove bad data whilst keeping the extremes. None of the ISD flags were used in this process. The QC tests focussed on the temperature, dewpoint temperature and sea-level pressure variables, although some were applied to the wind speed and direction and cloud data. The data files also contain other variables which were pulled through from the raw ISD record, but have had no QC applied (e.g. cloud base and precipitation depth).

Note: These data have not yet been homogenised and so trend fitting should be undertaken with caution. The homogeneity has been assessed and results are available from the Met Office Hadley Centre HadISD website:

For further details see:
Dunn, R. J. H., et al., (2016), Expanding HadISD: quality-controlled, sub-daily station data from 1931, Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, and Dunn, R. J. H., et al. (2012), HadISD: A Quality Controlled global synoptic report database for selected variables at long-term stations
from 1973-2011, Climate of the Past.
Dunn, R. J. H., et al. (2014), Pairwise Homogeneity Assessment of HadISD, Climate of the Past, 10, 1501-1522 (see Docs for links to publications).

Input Description


Output Description


Software Reference


  • standard_name: cloud_base_altitude
  • long_name: Cloud base of lowest cloud layer
  • var_id: cbase
  • units: meters
  • long_name: Dew point temperature at screen height (~2m)
  • units: degree_Celsius
  • var_id: tds
  • standard_name: dew_point_temperature
  • var_id: tas
  • standard_name: air_temperature
  • units: degree_Celsius
  • long_name: Dry bulb air temperature at screen height (~2m)
  • units: 1
  • var_id: clhigh
  • standard_name: high_type_cloud_area_fraction
  • long_name: High cloud cover (oktas)
  • var_id: cllow
  • units: 1
  • standard_name: low_type_cloud_area_fraction
  • long_name: Low cloud cover (oktas)
  • units: 1
  • standard_name: medium_type_cloud_area_fraction
  • long_name: Mid cloud cover (oktas)
  • var_id: clmid
  • units: 1
  • var_id: quality_control_flags
  • long_name: Quality Control status for individual obs
  • standard_name: air_pressure_at_sea_level
  • long_name: Reported Sea Level Pressure at screen height (~2m)
  • var_id: psl
  • units: hPa
  • units: 1
  • long_name: Reported past significant weather phenomena
  • var_id: pastsigwx1
  • standard_name: past_significant_weather
  • long_name: Station ID number
  • var_id: stationname
  • units: 1
  • var_id: clt
  • long_name: Total cloud cover (oktas)
  • standard_name: cloud_area_fraction
  • units: degree
  • long_name: Wind Direction at mast height (~10m)
  • standard_name: wind_from_direction
  • var_id: wd
  • standard_name: wind_speed_of_gust
  • long_name: Wind Gust Speed at mast height (~10m)
  • var_id: wg
  • units: meters per second
  • units: meters per second
  • long_name: Wind speed at mast height (~10m)
  • standard_name: wind_speed
  • var_id: ws
  • units: meters
  • var_id: altitude
  • standard_name: altitude
  • long_name: altitude of station site
  • var_id: station_identification_code
  • long_name: station ID code at time step

Co-ordinate Variables

  • units: degrees_north
  • long_name: station latitude
  • var_id: latitude
  • standard_name: latitude
  • long_name: station longitude
  • var_id: longitude
  • standard_name: longitude
  • units: degrees_east
  • var_id: time
  • standard_name: time
  • long_name: time_of_measurement
Temporal Range
Start time:
End time:
Geographic Extent