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HadISD: Global sub-daily, surface meteorological station data, 1931-2016, v2.0.1.2016f

Update Frequency: Not Planned
Latest Data Update: 2017-04-07
Status: Superseded
Online Status: ONLINE
Publication State: Published
Publication Date: 2017-04-20
Download Stats: last 12 months
Dataset Size: 7.89K Files | 30GB

This dataset has been superseded. See Latest Version here

This is version of Met Office Hadley Centre's Integrated Surface Database, HadISD. These data are global sub-daily surface meteorological data that extends HadISD v2.0.0.2015p to span 1931-2016 and includes an increase in the number of stations and an updated methodology and is the final version of the 2016 data.

The quality controlled variables in this dataset are: temperature, dewpoint temperature, sea-level pressure, wind speed and direction, cloud data (total, low, mid and high level). Past significant weather and precipitation data are also included, but have not been quality controlled, so their quality and completeness cannot be guaranteed. Quality control flags and data values which have been removed during the quality control process are provided in the qc_flags and flagged_values fields, and ancillary data files show the station listing with a station listing with IDs, names and location information.

The data are provided as one NetCDF file per station. Files in the station_data folder station data files have the format "station_code" The station codes can be found under the docs tab or on the archive beside the station_data folder. The station codes file has five columns as follows: 1) station code, 2) station name 3) station latitude 4) station longitude 5) station height.

To keep up to date with updates, news and announcements follow the HadOBS team on twitter @metofficeHadOBS.

For more detailed information e.g bug fixes, routine updates and other exploratory analysis, see the HadISD blog:

When using the dataset in a paper you must cite the following papers (see Docs for link to the publications) and this dataset (using the "citable as" reference) :

Dunn, R. J. H., Willett, K. M., Parker, D. E., and Mitchell, L.: Expanding HadISD: quality-controlled, sub-daily station data from 1931, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 473-491, doi:10.5194/gi-5-473-2016, 2016.

Dunn, R. J. H., et al. (2012), HadISD: A Quality Controlled global synoptic report database for selected variables at long-term stations from 1973-2011, Clim. Past, 8, 1649-1679, 2012, doi:10.5194/cp-8-1649-2012

Smith, A., N. Lott, and R. Vose, 2011: The Integrated Surface Database: Recent Developments and Partnerships. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, 704–708, doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3015.1

For a homogeneity assessment of HadISD please see this following reference

Dunn, R. J. H., K. M. Willett, C. P. Morice, and D. E. Parker. "Pairwise homogeneity assessment of HadISD." Climate of the Past 10, no. 4 (2014): 1501-1522. doi:10.5194/cp-10-1501-2014, 2014.

Citable as:  Met Office Hadley Centre; National Centers for Environmental Information - NOAA (2017): HadISD: Global sub-daily, surface meteorological station data, 1931-2016, v2.0.1.2016f. Centre for Environmental Data Analysis, date of citation.
Abbreviation: Not defined
Keywords: HadISD, cloud data


Previous Info:
No news update for this record
Previously used record identifiers:
No related previous identifiers.
Access rules:
Public data: access to these data is available to both registered and non-registered users.
Use of these data is covered by the following licence: When using these data you must cite them correctly using the citation given on the CEDA Data Catalogue record.
Data lineage:

HadISD the global sub-daily station dataset was produced by the Met Office Hadley Centre. It was derived from the Integrated Surface Dataset (ISD) from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). HadISD has been passed to the BADC for archiving and distribution.

Data Quality:
CF-Compliant NetCDF, see documentation for quality control processes used to produce these data.
File Format:
The data are provided in NetCDF format.

Process overview

This dataset was generated by the computation detailed below.

HadISD station data processing performed at the Met Office Hadley Centre


The HadISD station data were produced by the Met Office Hadley Centre. Individual station data within the ISD were selected selected on the basis of their length of record and reporting frequency. A merging algorithm using their location, elevation and station name identified candidates suitable to combine together. All stations were passed through a suite of automated quality control tests designed to remove bad data whilst keeping the extremes. None of the ISD flags were used in this process. The QC tests focussed on the temperature, dewpoint temperature and sea-level pressure variables, although some were applied to the wind speed and direction and cloud data. The data files also contain other variables which were pulled through from the raw ISD record, but have had no QC applied (e.g. cloud base and precipitation depth).

1. These data have not yet been homogenised and so trend fitting should be undertaken with caution. The homogeneity has been assessed and results are available from the Met Office Hadley Centre HadISD website:
2. A long-standing bug (affecting versions v2.0.2_2017p through to v3.3.0.2022f), was discovered in autumn 2023 whereby the neighbour checks (and associated [un]flagging for some other tests) were not being implemented. This was corrected for the later version v3.4.0.2023f to HadISD. For more details see the posts on the HadISD blog: & through to v3.3.0.2022f), and as noted this has been fixed for v3.4.02023f.

For further details see:
Dunn, R. J. H., et al., (2016), Expanding HadISD: quality-controlled, sub-daily station data from 1931, Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, and Dunn, R. J. H., et al. (2012), HadISD: A Quality Controlled global synoptic report database for selected variables at long-term stations
from 1973-2011, Climate of the Past.
Dunn, R. J. H., et al. (2014), Pairwise Homogeneity Assessment of HadISD, Climate of the Past, 10, 1501-1522 (see Docs for links to publications).

Input Description


Output Description


Software Reference


  • standard_name: cloud_base_altitude
  • units: meters
  • var_id: cbase
  • long_name: Cloud base of lowest cloud layer
  • var_id: precip
  • units: mm
  • standard_name: lwe_thickness_of_precipitation_amount
  • long_name: Depth of Precipitation Reported over time period
  • units: degree_Celsius
  • standard_name: dew_point_temperature
  • var_id: tds
  • long_name: Dew point temperature at screen height (~2m)
  • standard_name: air_temperature
  • var_id: tas
  • units: degree_Celsius
  • long_name: Dry bulb air temperature at screen height (~2m)
  • units: 1
  • var_id: clhigh
  • long_name: High cloud cover (oktas)
  • standard_name: high_type_cloud_area_fraction
  • units: 1
  • var_id: cllow
  • long_name: Low cloud cover (oktas)
  • standard_name: low_type_cloud_area_fraction
  • units: 1
  • var_id: clmid
  • long_name: Mid cloud cover (oktas)
  • standard_name: medium_type_cloud_area_fraction
  • units: 1
  • long_name: Quality Control status for individual obs
  • var_id: quality_control_flags
  • units: hPa
  • var_id: psl
  • standard_name: air_pressure_at_sea_level
  • long_name: Reported Sea Level Pressure at screen height (~2m)
  • units: 1
  • var_id: pastsigwx1
  • long_name: Reported past significant weather phenomena
  • units: hour
  • var_id: precipperiod
  • long_name: Reported period over which precipitation was recorded
  • long_name: Sea Level Pressure
  • gcmd_url:
  • gcmd_keyword: Sea Level Pressure
  • names: Sea Level Pressure,
  • var_id: stationname
  • long_name: Station ID number
  • units: 1
  • standard_name: cloud_area_fraction
  • var_id: clt
  • long_name: Total cloud cover (oktas)
  • units: degree
  • standard_name: wind_from_direction
  • var_id: wd
  • long_name: Wind Direction at mast height (~10m)
  • standard_name: wind_speed_of_gust
  • units: meters per second
  • var_id: wg
  • long_name: Wind Gust Speed at mast height (~10m)
  • standard_name: wind_speed
  • units: meters per second
  • var_id: ws
  • long_name: Wind speed at mast height (~10m)
  • standard_name: altitude
  • var_id: altitude
  • units: meters
  • long_name: altitude of station site
  • long_name: station ID code at time step
  • var_id: station_identification_code

Co-ordinate Variables

  • units: degrees_north
  • standard_name: latitude
  • var_id: latitude
  • long_name: station latitude
  • units: degrees_east
  • standard_name: longitude
  • var_id: longitude
  • long_name: station longitude
  • standard_name: time
  • var_id: time
  • long_name: time_of_measurement
Temporal Range
Start time:
End time:
Geographic Extent